☰ menu


In answering Sharron Frontiero's question "Does the Constitution permit the government to treat men and women differently?" the Supreme Court invalidated a federal law based on gender for the first time in American history. Three years later, using arguments made by Frontiero's attorneys, the Court would create an intermediate level of scrutiny to deal with gender discrimination.

Read more about this case

Law Databases


FindLaw's Cases and Codes section contains provisions of state and federal law. It also contains a record of state and federal case law for trial and appellate courts. The site looks at the arguments made in Frontiero v. Richardson. It includes the full text of the court's opinion, concurrences, and dissents and a record of various filings and motions leading to the outcome of the case.

Click here.


Oyez.com provides a variety of resources on Frontiero v. Richardson, including links to case text, audio recordings, and references. It also provides a high-level overview of the central issue addressed by the case and the court's holding along along with a visual depiction of the justices on the Court at the time.

Click here.

Online References

Constitutional Center

This page offers an overview of the cases effect on gender equality.

Click here.

Encyclopedia of Alabama

The Encyclopedia of Alabama is a great resource for those wishing to know more about the case's relevance to the state of Alabama.


Southern Poverty Law Center

The SPLC's website includes many resources on ongoing efforts to increase equality in the United States and the relative impact of Frontiero v. Richardson.

Click here.


Thirteen.org is a program under which PBS highlights the cases key to the advancement of constitutional civil rights in United States.

Click here.

Archival Resources

Library of Congress

The Library of Congress's database houses a PDF link to the original court opinions.


Supreme Court History.org

This website is a fantastic resource for those wishing to do more in depth research on the topic of gender inequality.

Click here.

Washington and Lee School of Law

Offers a comprehensive list of resources helpful for those wanting to learn more about Ruth Bader Ginsburg's early career.

Click here.

Visit an Alabama Museum!

Alabama Department of Archives and History


Southern Poverty Law Center